Human trafficking is the process by which people are transferred from one place, area or country to another. This could take place across jurisdictions and persons subject to this process are being moved against their will or under false pretences. Human trafficking seeks to exploit people and may be further sub-divided into sex exploitation where persons are forced or coerced to perform such acts or the involuntary recruitment of persons for forced labour.
The UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (2000) and the EU Directive 2011/36/EU on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Human Beings and Protecting its Victims defines the crime of trafficking in human beings as:
“the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs”